Combining literature text mining with microarray data: advances for system biology modeling
A huge amount of important biomedical information is hidden in the bulk of research articles in biomedical fields. At the same time, the publication of databases of biological information and of experimental datasets generated by high-throughput methods is in great expansion, and a wealth of annotated gene databases, chemical, genomic (including microarray datasets), clinical and other types of data repositories are now available on the Web. Thus a current challenge of bioinformatics is to develop targeted methods and tools that integrate scientific literature, biological databases and experimental data for reducing the time of database curation and for accessing evidence, either in the literature or in the datasets, useful for the analysis at hand. Under this scenario, this article reviews the knowledge discovery systems that fuse information from the literature, gathered by text mining, with microarray data for enriching the lists of down and upregulated genes with elements for biological understanding and for generating and validating new biological hypothesis. Finally, an easy to use and freely accessible tool, GeneWizard, that exploits text mining and microarray data fusion for supporting researchers in discovering gene–disease relationships is described.